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Girl power in a man’s world
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16.1. Education around the World
Both authors participated in the development of the rationale for the study. AB wrote the manuscript and CM carried out the analysis. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript. Correspondence to Ariane Baye. Reprints and Permissions. Search all SpringerOpen articles Search.
Introduction to Education
Abstract This study examines gender differences in the variability of student performance in reading, mathematics and science. Background International comparative surveys of student achievement such as those carried out by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement IEA or by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD have for a long time been useful tools for estimating the magnitude of gender gaps, in particular for educational outcomes.
Researchers have found that the magnitude of the gender differences may depend on: 1. The test characteristics, including a The test content, such as the sub-domains assessed, the type of tasks or processes measured, the cognitive demands of the items, and the context of the questions. The statistical analyses performed. This aspect is discussed in the next section. Gender differences according to computed statistics The growing success of using meta-analysis to report between-groups differences has non-negligible consequences on the kind of results reported.
Extreme tails In the case of normal distribution and homogeneity of variance, differences at the upper and lower tails of the distribution may logically be inferred from the mean difference. Gender variability Although gender differences in variability are not a core concern of research into gender differences in achievement, studies in this area have a long tradition. Purpose of the study We explore gender differences in reading, mathematics and science since the s i. Our goal was to provide evidences from many national representative samples to answer the following questions: 1.
Analysis Data from every country or education system in these international databases were included in this study, even those flagged in the international reports. Two types of statistics were computed: 1. Full size image. Discussion Consistent with Hill et al. Limitations Some trends have been observed, as well as some evolution by educational levels. Conclusions This study examined gender differences in variance and at the extreme tails of the score distribution in reading, mathematics and science.
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